Europeans could not have explored, conquered, and then colonized North America without American help and instruction. This unit will attempt to analyze the European colonial experience by comparing and contrasting the modes of settlement of the English, the French, the Dutch, the Swedes, and the Spanish. We will also study how the Europeans interacted with the Americans from 1500-1700 and how exploration, conquest, and colonization manifested themselves in different ways.
Further reading: Jennings, Francis The Invasion of America,The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire, and Empire of Fortune; Weslager, C.A. New Sweden on the Delaware; The Delaware Indians; Redmen on the Brandywine; Dutch Explorers, Traders, and Settlers in the Delaware Valley 1609-1664 and The English on the Delaware, 1610-82; Steele, Ian Warpaths: Invasions of North America; Axtell, James The Invasion From Within; The European and the Indian and The Indian Peoples of North America. Kupperman, Karen Settling with the Indian and Roanoke; Usner, Daniel: Indians, Settlers, and Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy; Vaughn, Alden: New England Frontier; Melboyn, Richard: New England Outpost; Salisbury, Neal: Manito and Providence; Cronin, William: Changes in the Land; Perkins, Edward: The Economy of Colonial America; Leach, Robert: Flintlock and Tomahawk; Jacobs, Wilbur Wilderness Politics and Indian Gifts; Heckewelder, John History, Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania; Andrews, Ken Trade, Plunder and Settlement; Quinn, David Set Faire for Roanoke.
1. In your opinion, what role did the Indians
play in the European exploration, conquest and colonization of
North America from 1500-1700? Explain by giving specific examples.
2. Who was more responsible for the Europeanization of North America? Europeans or Indians? Explain by giving specific examples.
3. How did exploration, conquest, and colonization manifest themselves differently in North America from 1500-1700? Explain by giving examples.
4. Choose which European colony you like the most and defend.
3-1: European Exploration, Conquest, and
Colonization of America
6. List the five European countries that colonized America 1500-1700:
7. Why did the King of England, etc. allow corporations to colonize?
8. What is the #1 job of a corporation?
9. Was it right for the Europeans to do colonize America?
11. Criticize or defend imperialism:
12. Draw a cartoon (not a map) of Pirates in the Caribbean c. 1600:
13. Web: Good of mother, colony, imperialism, raid, dominate others, Europe, America, 1492-1700, Black beard, Spain, France, Indians, Pirates, bad.
3-3: Presentations 1-4
1. Good points and bad points of Isabella presentation:
1. Web 5 facts about Isabella:
2. Good points and bad points of Roanoke presentation:
3. Web 5 facts about Roanoke:
4. Good points and bad points of San Augustine presentation:
5. Web 5 facts about San Augustine:
6. Good points and bad points of Jamestown presentation:
7. Web 5 facts about Jamestown:
3-4: Presentations 5-8
1. Good points and bad points of Quebec presentation:
2. Web 5 facts about Quebec:
3. Good points and bad points of Plymouth presentation:
4. Web 5 facts about Plymouth:
5. Good points and bad points of Fort Orange presentation:
6. Web 5 facts about Fort Orange:
7. Good points and bad points of Fort Christina presentation:
8. Web 5 facts about Fort Christina:
3-5: European-Amerindian Interaction
6. In 1609, Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch West India Company (D.W.I.C.) sailed up the Delaware River, an area inhabited by the Lenapes and claimed by the English. The Indians there accepted Hudson, traded with him, invited him into their houses. They traded furs or pelts for tools, kettles, beads, scissors, etc. They asked him to come back. For the next 20 or so years, from 1609-38, D.W.I.C. trading vessels made two or three voyages to the Delaware Valley. Each side believed that they benefited.
7. How did this trade change the Lenape?
8. The Dutch traders?
9. Chief Matterhorn:
10. In 1638, the Swedes moved into the area, driving out the Dutch traders. They built Fort Christina on the west shore of the Delaware River (present Wilmington, Delaware). The Lenape, under Chief Mattahorn and others, welcomed them with open arms as the Swedes offered them more trade goods (even muskets) at lower prices.
11. How did this tiny settlement change the lives of the Lenape?
12. Over the next 20 or so years, the Swedes spread north and south. They built a settlement at Upland (present Chester, Pa) and Schwanendahl (present Lewes, Delaware). They even built outposts on the eastern side of the river. The Lenape helped them farm, got them pelts, etc. After a few more years of contact, disease wipes out about one half of them. And after that, all the fur-bearing animals were trapped out of the Land of the Lenape.
13. If you were the Lenape what would you do about the furs? Explain:
14. Beaver Wars:
15. If you were the Duke of York, whom would you have chosen? Haudenoshownee or Susquehannock? Explain:
16. How did exploration, conquest, and colonization manifest themselves?
3-6: Penn's Colony
5. D.S.R. Transitions: Beginnings to 1776:
6. In 1681, New York was split in two. The King of Britain, Charles II, owed a considerable amount of money to the estate of Admiral William Penn. His son, William Penn, jr., asked the king to cede the southern portion of New York to him in fief. The territory would be named Pennsylvania (Penn's Woods) and William Penn, jr. would be its feudal lord. All inhabitants of the lower Delaware Valley would now be subject to William Penn who was subject to King Charles.
7. How should Penn "take over"?
10. Delaware Indians:
11. Lasse Koch:
12. Six counties:
13. City of Philadelphia:
14. Why did Penn open Pennsylvania up to various groups?
15. What is the concept of Penn's "Holy Experiment"?
16. Criticize or defend the Holy Experiment:
3-1: European Exploration, Conquest, and Colonization of America
While the kings of Spain and France financed the colonization of America through taxes, England, the Netherlands, and Sweden all sub-contracted their colonizing efforts to corporations. e.g. the Virginia Company (England), the Dutch West India Company (Netherlands), and the New Sweden Company (Sweden).
A colony is a detachment. It needs "mother." Colonies are established to help "mother." Several European powers from 1500-1700 established colonies in America to strengthen their position at home. "Colonists" were Europeans sent to extract wealth from the colonies. i.e. from the Americans (i.e. Indians).
In establishing colonies abroad, these European powers become empires. An empire or imperialism is the domination of one race/culture/country over another for the benefit of the dominator. Exploit someone else for your own benefit. (Although the Europeans always argued that their domination also benefited the dominated).
Pirates were people who raided ships in the Caribbean. Also called Buccaneers or Filibusters. They came from a variety of backgrounds. Mostly Dutch, French, or English pirates raiding Spanish Galleons. They'd raid from one of the Caribbean islands and hit Spanish Galleons along the Spanish Main (the main land of South and Central America). Most famous pirates: Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Richard Hawkins, William Kidd, Edward Teach (Blackbeard), Anne Bonny, Henry Morgan, Pierre Le Grand, Johann Spielbergen.
3-5: European-Amerindian Interaction
As you have learned from the presentations, Europeans could not have explored, conquered, and then colonized North America without Native American Indian help and instruction. In this lesson, you will further study how the Europeans interacted with the Amerindians from 1500-1700 and how exploration, conquest, and colonization manifested themselves in different ways. Example to be used will be a study of the Delaware-Susquehanna Region (DSR) from 1609-1681.
In 1609, Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch West India Company (DWIC) sailed up the Delaware River, an area inhabited by the Lenapes and claimed by the English. The Indians there accepted Hudson, traded with him, invited him into their houses. They traded furs or pelts for tools, kettles, beads, scissors, etc. They asked him to come back.
For the next 20 or so years, from 1609-38, DWIC trading vessels made two or three voyages to the Delaware Valley. Each side believed that they benefited.
In 1638, the Swedes moved into the area, driving out the Dutch traders. They built Fort Christina on the west shore of the Delaware River (present Wilmington, Delaware). The Lenape, under Chief Mattahorn and others, welcomed them with open arms as the Swedes offered them more trade goods (even muskets) at lower prices.
Over the next 20 or so years, the Swedes spread north and south. They built a settlement at Upland (present Chester, Pa) and Schwanendahl (present Lewes, Delaware) They even built outposts on the eastern side of the river. The Lenape helped them farm, got them pelts, etc. After a few more years of contact, about one half of them get wiped out by disease.
And after that, all the fur-bearing animals were trapped out of the Land of the Lenape.
1. Stop trading with the Swedes and try to go back to the old ways.
2. Trade Swedish goods with Susquehannocks to get fur. Act as the "middle man."
The Lenape chose #2 and began to act as the middle men, raising the prices even more. Because prices were raised, the Susquehannocks felt that they had to get more pelts in order to keep the Swedish goods coming in through Lenape traders. This starts the "Beaver Wars." The Susquehannocks began to raid west for more pelts. They destroyed the Eries or "Black Minquas" who were allied with the French and gained control of the Allegheny River Valley. The Haudenoshownee, allied with the Dutch, wiped out most of the Mohicans and the Wendots. Then the Haudenoshownee went after the Susquehannocks and they fought off and on for over ten years.
In 1664, the English, led by the Duke of York, took over New Sweden and New Netherland. The English now controlled the entire coast. The Haudenoshownee said that the English must choose either themselves or the Susquehannocks for the fur.
The English chose the Haudenoshownee and the Susquehannocks were cut off from supplies. In 1674, the Haudenoshownee/Lenape wiped out most of the Susquehannock in a series of battles on the west side of teh river. In 1676, what was left of them was snuffed by Maryland Militia. By 1681 therefore, when William Penn was given his land grant, the only "Indians" that lived in "Pennsylvania" were the Lenape.
In 1681, New York was split in two. The King of Britain, Charles 2nd, owed a considerable amount of money to the estate of Admiral William Penn. His son, William Penn, jr., asked the King to cede the southern portion of New York to him in fief. The territory would be named Pennsylvania (Penn's Woods) and William Penn, jr. would be its feudal lord. All inhabitants of the lower Delaware Valley would now be subject to William Penn who was subject to Charles 2nd.
William Penn was not only an English lord, but a Quaker. Quakers were seen as radicals in the 1600's. They were pacifists who believed that all people were God's people. Penn wished his new province to be a haven not only for fellow pacifists, but also an experiment for a different society. "A cocoon." He looked at the map where his territory was, saw that it had four Swedish towns, Schwanendahl, Christina, Upland, and New Gothenburg, and several scattered farms. He also saw that the Lenapes and Susquehannocks were tied in with them.
On October 28, 1682, Penn arrived to his new province on the merchant ship Welcome. He renamed Schwanendahl Lewes, Christina Wilmington, and Upland Chester, where he made the "capital" of Pennsylvania for several years. He also renamed the Lenape Indians the Delaware Indians.
Over the next several months, Penn and his Swedish-Indian interpreter Lasse Koch (pronounced "Coke") met with Delaware Indians chiefs such as Tammeny, Kalehickop, Nockcoamen, Toonis, and Okanickon wanting to trade their land for goods.
Penn made several treaties of friendship with the Delawares to move them west (did they have a choice?). He purchased enough land to chart out six counties: Bucks, Philadelphia, Chester (upper) and New Castle, Kent, and Sussex (lower). Most of the Delawares moved up the Schuylkill River and into present Berks, Schuylkill, Lancaster, and Dauphin counties.
With the land secured, Penn surveyed the new capital of Pennsylvania, "Philadelphia," which is Greek for "City of [Brotherly] Love." He wanted a totally new kind of city. One with broad streets and houses with yards.
Penn then went to work to sell his lands off to English Quakers and German Mennonites, like-minded pacifists. Soon he would accept Scottish Presbyterians, German Lutherans, English and Irish Catholics, etc. He built a mansion north of Philadelphia which he called "Pennsbury Manor."
In 1493, Christopher Columbus returned to Hispaniola
(which means "Little Spain") to pick up the crew that
he was forced to leave behind the year before. When he reached
the settlement, Navidad however, all he and his men found were
abandoned houses and the skeletal remains of the original crew.
This time, Columbus had come to the Caribbean with a larger fleet
and a contingent of Spanish soldiers, called "Conquistadors,"
who had been tempered by the brutal reconquista in which
the Spaniards drove the Ottomans from the Iberian Peninsula
in the 1480's. These Conquistadors wanted to exterminate all of
the natives of the island for retribution. But Columbus said no.
He knew that he needed the natives if he was to extract any wealth
from the region.
Columbus therefore made an alliance with the local natives and together they built the settlement of Isabella along the northern coast of Hispaniola (present Dominican Republic). As such, Isabella was the first permanent European settlement in America. Columbus also brought Catholic missionaries with him. They converted at least some of the natives to Christianity to help Europeanize them. This is where the term "Hispanic" comes from; a mixture of white Spanish culture and brown American culture. Before long, a war broke out between some of the more belligerent natives and the conquistadors. Although some of the Indians were able to remain free, many were forced to submit to the Spanish. By 1600, most of the Caribbean region had gone through similar a pattern: Spanish conquistadors and missionaries moved in with superior technology, some Indians joined them, becoming Hispanic, and the Indians who resisted were either wiped out or forcibly converted. The bulk of Spanish America thus became Hispanic in nature, as opposed to pure European Spanish culture.
The most famous example of this was Cortez's conquest of the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro's conquest of the Incas in Peru, Juan Ponce de Leon's conquest of Puerto Rico and Florida, and Coronado's conquest of New Mexico. Cortez sailed from Cuba with a fleet and a contingent of conquistadors intent on conquering the great Aztec Empire. When he first landed, he defeated an Indian nation in battle and then made an alliance with it. One of the members of this tribe was named Malinchae. She could speak several Indian languages, married Cortez, and guided him into the interior. Today she is known as the "mother" of Mexico. The Spanish also purchased slaves from the African kingdoms to mine gold or grow sugar in America.
See pp. 48-49 in your text book for further information.
In 1584, the Virginia Company was formed by Sir Richard Hakluyt (hack-loot), Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir Francis Drake to establish "plantations or colonies" in America in order to stop Spain in her bid for European domination. Raleigh and Drake, among others, had been raiding the Spanish Main in the Caribbean for years and realized that if they were to really take it to the Spanish they needed a permanent settlement in America in order to service their ships. While Hakluyt worked to raise money, Raleigh and Drake scoped out the coastal regions north of the Spanish bastions on Cuba. They explored the coasts of the present Carolinas and Virginia, noting that the land was "plentiful and sweet." They found one bay in North Carolina that especially appealing, however. It was far enough away from Spanish Cuba but close enough to launch raids against ships departing from it. In this bay, off the outer banks of present-day North Carolina, was an island that the natives called "Roanoke." Here would be the English outpost.
The next year, 1585, Raleigh returned to Roanoke with 108 Englishmen who had already had experience in conquest and colonization in Ireland. While they built a settlement, Raleigh took off to raid the Spanish Main. In 1586, Drake stopped by the settlement to refit his vessel when he found the colonists on the verge of starvation. Apparently, they had not cultivated a healthy relationship with the natives and demanded to be transported back to England.
In 1587, Raleigh, who didn't have the temperament to settle Roanoke, placed his associate, Capt. John White, in charge of "planting" the island. White brought 84 men, 17 women, 11 children to Roanoke. At first, things went well. White was able to make an alliance with the natives through trade. e.g., he traded knives and iron pots for food, guidance and peace. He also painted several now-famous watercolors of the native peoples and of the fauna and flora of North Carolina. By the end of the summer, Captain White, happy with how things had gone so far, returned to England for resupply. He left behind his daughter, his son-in-law, John Dare, and his granddaughter, Virginia, who was born on Roanoke.
When White returned to England however, he and his vessel were drafted into service against the invading Spanish and their infamous "Armada." The Spanish had made some landings in Ireland and France and had England totally surrounded. Queen Elizabeth was fearful that England would fall. Over the next two years, the English, led by Raleigh and Drake, battled the Spanish along the English coasts, finally driving them back. Only in 1590, three years after he left Roanoke, was White able to return. What he found was a "Lost Colony." The settlement was abandoned with no sign of struggle. The only clue he found was a word carved on a post "Croatan" and the letters "CRO" on a nearby tree trunk. Croatan was the name of a nearby island and a group of local Indians. White frantically searched the coast for several months, but found nothing. He returned to England, saddened with the loss by his daughter and granddaughter, and continued to help the Queen bring Ireland to its knees, securing England from further Spanish invasion.
See. pp. 71-72 in your text book for further information.
3. San Augustine
In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida from newly conquered Puerto Rico. He was in search of the fabled "Fountain of Youth" which he never found. Fifty years later, in 1562, the French established a fort in northern Florida to attack the Spanish or the English in the region. It was built and garrisoned by 75 soldiers and 75 peasants. During the building of the fort however, the garrison lost all of its supplies to a fire. To avoid starvation, the French befriended the local Guale (pronounced "gwall-A") Indians, trading tools for food, guidance, and peace. Together they built Fort Caroline, which quickly turned into a raiding post against the Spanish. In 1565, Spain outfitted an expedition under Captain Pedro Menendez with 5 ships and 500 soldiers. The French and Spanish subsequently fought a sea battle on the river, the Spanish landed, attacked, and were driven back. They retreated 40 miles to the south and made an alliance with the Seminoles. They lived with them and fortified their town "against the French." A month later, Captain Menendez reopened his attack against French Fort Carolina through the jungle with his Seminole allies. This time, the Spanish took the fort, killed all of the men and captured 50 women and children who became their "wives and children." Menendez renamed settlement San Augustine. He brought over peasants and missionaries to live among the Indians and make them Hispanic. African slaves were also brought over. Fort Augustine primarily served as a military post against French, the English, and the Dutch. Hurricanes eventually destroyed the settlement and many people died of tropical diseases.
In 1586, Englishman Sir Francis Drake with 23 ships and 2,000 men took the fort. The Spanish returned and built a bigger fort with Indian help. In 1668, English again destroyed the fort. The Spanish then returned and rebuilt the settlement from 1672-87. This is the large stone fort that stands today. In 1763, the fort with 3,000 Spanish or Hispanics, 350 African slaves, 79 free blacks, and 83 "Christian Indians" was given to the British Empire with Treaty of Paris.
Despite the failure of the Roanoke Colony in 1585, Sir Richard Hakluyt (hack-loot) did not give up on his dream of establishing "colonies or plantations" in America. In 1607, he resurrected his Virginia Company and, with the permission of King James I, sent three ships and a little over 100 "adventurers" to plant in Virginia. Like before, the primary mission of the Virginia settlement was to establish an outpost to outfit Engish ships, to find a Northwest Passage to East Asia and to extract as much natural resource from America as possible to pay the Virginia Company investors.
The first expedition was led by Capt. Christopher Newport from the Navy and Capt. John Smith from the Army, both wealthy investors of the Virginia Company. In May 1607, Newport's small fleet sailed up what is now called the James River in the State of Virginia. There Smith's men went to work in building a fort on a small, marshy peninsula about 30 miles from the ocean. After a few weeks, Smith and his men were able to construct a sturdy three-sided bastion surrounded by cabins. Like the river, the town was aptly named after the English king, James I. This settlement, "Jamestown," was the first permanent English settlement in America.
Jamestown was beset with problems. It was not supplied by the Virginia Company as promised and as such, more than half of the original 100 or so died within the first year. What further exacerbated this problem was the fact that the men, mostly soldiers and sailors, spent the bulk of their time exploring the bays, rivers, and inlets of the region and didn't even attempt to grow food or trade with the Indians. Thus, the initial phase of the Jamestown is often called the "Starving Time," and many of them did just that. Smith felt that he had to do something and struck out to make a treaty with the local Indians under Chief Powhatan. The Indians were leery of the English and were in fact planning to attack them when Smith walked into their town. He traded with them, he ate with them, he made an alliance with them. In fact, one of Powhatan's young daughters, Pocahontas (meaning "playful spirit") served as the instrument of adopting Smith into Powhatan's nation.
In 1610, Smith was injured in a gun powder explosion in the fort and he was replaced by Sir Thomas West, Lord De La Warr. Following what Newport and Smith had started, West expanded Jamestown and helped Powhatan attack some inland tribes. By 1615, the colony wasn't producing much, and the Virginia Company almost went bankrupt. Then in 1617, agriculturist John Rolfe crossbred different Indian tobacco plants to make a milder smoking tobacco for European consumption. The tobacco quickly became Jamestown's reason for existence. To thank Rolfe, Powhatan married his daughter, Pocahontas, to him. She later died in England.
With the tobacco cash crop, the Virginians wanted more land to grow the stuff. Powhatan refused, however. The English had enough land, he thought. The English didn't see it this way and in 1624 a war broke out. Although the Indians held the upper hand in the first year of the war-killing one half of the English colonists-the Europeans were able to counter-attack with reinforcements sent over from Britain and destroyed Powhatan's people. There was no way that the Virginia Company was going to give this up. The tobacco plantations grew on. See pp. 73-75 in your textbook for further information.
France had been searching for the fabled "Northwest Passage" that would take them through or around North America to East Asia. In 1534, the king of France sent Jacques Cartier (zhawk kart-ee-A) to find such an inlet passage. Sailing by Newfoundland, Cartier found the largest inlet on the coast--the Bay of Saint Lawrence--a place that he called "Que Bec!" (kay-beck) or "What a mouth!" He sailed up the river and met with some Algonquin Indians who called the area "Can-a-da" or "our home." Cartier spent a few weeks in Canada, the land of the Algonquins, and made a trade treaty with them.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain, (sam-ü-el day shom-plane) "the Father of New France," sailed up the Saint Lawrence River and built an actual trading post--called Quebec--in Algonquin territory. Champlain learned their language, lived with them, traveled with them. Like Cartier, Champlain was looking for a Northwest Passage to East Asia. As such, his Algonquin allies took him up river to the "Land of the Wendots" which is among the Great Lakes. Champlain called these Indians Hurons" (he-your-ons) because they were rougher than the Algonquins. "Hur" means "course" in French.
In 1609, Champlain accompanied the Algonquins and the Hurons on a raid against their ancient enemies, the "Iroquois" (ear-oh-koys). Champlain, armed with a matchlock musket, killed a Mohawk chief in the subsequent battle along present-day Lake Champlain. In helping the Algonquins and the Hurons fight the Iroquois, the French became close friends with the Indians north of the St. Lawrence and enemies to all those south of it.
Under Champlain's guidance, Quebec grew into a stable trade post/fort. French traders and missionaries and Indian men, women, and children lived in and around Quebec. The French traders worked for Champlain who worked for the king. The missionaries were sent by the Church of France to Christianize and Frenchify the Indians. From Quebec, the French and their Indian allies spread out into the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Valley, ending up down in Nouvelle Orleans (no-vel ore-lee-awns).
See pp. 62-63 in your text book for further information.
Sir Richard Hakluyt's (hack-loot's) English Virginia Company was founded to make money in America and to secure England's claim of the area from the French or Spanish. The company was divided into two components: the Virginia Company of London, which had founded Jamestown, and the Virginia Company of Plymouth, which founded Plymouth. Sir Fernando Gorges, owner of several whaleboats who fished off the coast of northern North America, headed the Virginia Company of Plymouth. Captain John Smith of Jamestown famed had earlier mapped the coast of the area for Gorgas, which he called "Newe England."
Gorges needed an outpost to service the whaleboats and a place to establish permanent commercial ties with the Indians of New England (he had been trading with them from boats for over ten years). Having trouble finding suitable colonists, Gorges accepted the offer of 50 or so English Separatists who wished to live apart from European society. These people are now called "Pilgrims." They were mostly artisans, farmers and homemakers who were led by the religious radical William Bradford. The other 50 or so, who are unfortunately overlooked, were soldiers of fortune, men like Capt. Miles Standish, artisans, merchants or farmers, employees of the company.
Gorges outfitted two merchant vessels, the Speedwell and the Mayflower to land his expedition in New England. A few days out to sea however, the Speedwell sprang a leak and all were loaded aboard the Mayflower. The Speedwell was to follow a few weeks later with the bulk of the supplies. When the Mayflower rounded Newfoundland in late October, however, it was hit by a severe storm. Somewhat damaged, the captain and crew of the Mayflower scrambled to find a suitable landing spot. After several weeks of reconnaissance of the area, they chose Capt. Smith's "Plymouth Harbor."
Capt. Standish went ashore with a scouting party with matchlock muskets, swords, and suits of body armor while William Bradford and his Separatists stayed aboard ship. In mid-November, it was decided to bring some of the party ashore to begin building fortified cabins. While most stayed on the Mayflower, those ashore, mostly the company soldiers, stood 24-hour watches. They had landed in land of the Wampanoag Indians, most of whom had died off by European diseases while in contact with the whalers. Standish was also afraid of Indian attack because of the known mistreatment of the whalers (kidnapping, rape, murder, etc).
Because of the severe winter and lack of supplies and proper housing (the Speedwell never showed up), disease killed half of the company's colonists before spring, 1621. Standish reported having only 20 men fit for duty. Nevertheless, he built a three sided fort on a hill, called "Fort Hill," about 400 yards from the beach and enclosed some cabins with a palisade. When completed, the Mayflower departed for resupply.
In March, the famous Squanto arrived, then Samoset (who was kidnapped by an English whaler and knew some English) and then Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag Indians. Following the company's desire to make an commercial alliance with these Indians, Capt. Standish agreed to protect them from interior tribes if they helped his settlement with food and brought in furs. And as for Bradford and the Separatists, they continued to build the town of Plymouth, making it a viable port for British shipping in northern North America. See pp. 78-80 in textbook.
7. Fort Orange
The Netherlands had just won their independence from Spain in 1609 when they began to set up colonies across the globe. Unlike the rest of Europe, the Dutch did not have a king and an elected legislative body made up of upper class lords and middle class tradesmen ran their country. In 1609, a group of these middle class tradesmen formed the Dutch West India Company (D.W.I.C.). The goal of D.W.I.C. was to make money for its investors and to make Holland more secure from further Spanish attack from Belgium (called the Spanish Netherlands at the time). D.W.I.C. hired Henry Hudson, an English sea captain, to secure a foothold in America and find a Northwest Passage to East Asia. The reason why Hudson was chosen is because he had sailed with John Smith of the Virginia Company a few years before and had some knowledge of the area north of Jamestown.
In September of that year, Hudson sailed up the river of his namesake--the Hudson River-- in present-day New York State. There he traded with the Mohicans and asked them if they knew where the rivers went--they said yes--and made a treaty with them, promising to come back once or twice every year. This went on for ten years when, in 1621, D.W.I.C. built Fort Orange (named after one of the states of the Netherlands) where the Hudson and Mohawk rivers meet. There, D.W.I.C., the Mohicans, and the Mohawks traded. The Dutch traders rarely if ever left their post. Indians from all over the area flocked to the fort.
Soon, the Dutch in Fort Orange and the French in Quebec became fierce rivals. This included their Indian allies as well. Both the Dutch and the French armed their Indian allies with muskets and for over 10 years, from 1645-55, the Indians fought for control of the beaver hunting grounds near the Great Lakes. While the Iroquois (Mohawks, Oneidas, etc) and the Mohicans fought with the Dutch, the Algonquins and the Hurons fought with the French.
In 1664, looking much like a city block in Rotterdam, Holland, the largest city in the world at the time, Fort Orange was conquered by an English fleet and army under the Duke of York. The whole region was thereafter named New York and the Mohicans and the Iroquois became allies to the English.
See pp. 83-84 in your textbook for further information.
8. Fort Christina
In 1637, several disgruntled employees of the Dutch West India Company, men like Peter Minuit, helped Sweden, a rival of the Netherlands, form its own trading company, the New Sweden Company (N.S.C.). In March, 1638, the company dispatched two vessels, the Kalmer Nykel (Key of Kalmar) and the Fogel Grip (Bird--Griffin), personally commanded by the Dutchman Peter Minuit, to establish a colony/trade post, called Fort Christina, at the rocks of the abandoned Lenape Indian town of Hopohoking (present Wilmington, Delaware) along the Chritina River. The trade post was to lure the Lenapes and the Susquehannocks away from the Dutch and the English and to drive them from the Delaware Valley.
In 1639, N.S.C. sent 100 farmers or artisans (blacksmiths, carpenters, and bricklayers) to enhance Fort Christina. Included were Swedes, Dutch, Finns, Germans, Poles, Lithuanians, and Danes. Notables were Peter Rambo, Anders Bond, Gregor van Dyke, Klås Jansson, Albertus Schreck, and the Lutheran pastor Johannes Companius (who learned Lenape and Susquehannock and translated the Bible into those languages). The company also brought 4 horses with them. The craftsmen built log cabins around a small fort as N.S.C. hoped to establish a permanent outpost in the region. Governor Johannes Printz (400 pounds) was sent soon after. Because he was so big, the Lenape called him "Meschatz" or "Big Guts."
The Lenape, so dependent on European wares because of their experience with the Dutch, went so far as to offer the Swedes "Tinicum," a small island in the middle of the Delaware to better service the towns near the Schuylkill. Printz had Fort New Gothenburg built there, which consisted of a star palisade, several log cabins, a Lutheran Church with a bell tower, and a wind powered gristmill. Several other scattered settlements were also constructed up and down the river. By 1645, New Sweden stretched from Fort Christina in the south to Fort New Gothenburg in the north. Most of the 4,000 Lenape lived among the 300 Swedes as day laborers/farmers/ hunters. Many Lenape women bore Swedish children. The common language in the valley became Swedish with a smattering of Lenape words.
By 1647, the Lenape had run out of furs and began to trade with the Susquehannocks to keep getting European goods. Before long, the Susquehannocks, with Swedish muskets, began to raid further west to secure more beaver trapping grounds. As such, each Native American Indian nation in the area had to ally with a European power or be destroyed by other Indians. The Haudenoshownee aligned with the Dutch and the Susquehannocks and the Lenape aligned with the Swedes. In 1655, the Dutch captured Fort Christina after a short siege and the Dutch West India Company absorbed the New Sweden Company. In 1664, the British, under the Duke of York, conquered the Dutch West India Company, Fort Christina became British, and the Haudenoshownee destroyed the Susquehannocks. The entire region was subsequently named New York (present New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) and the Lenape surrendered and accepted New York's terms. In 1681, the lower half of New York (present Pennsylvania and Delaware) was split off from New York and Fort Christina was renamed Wilmington by William Penn.
'Tis the year 1625 and you are one of the fifteen
tradesmen on the English vessel Victoria, sent by the Virginia
Company to establish an outpost in North America. You left
London, England, twelve weeks ago and have suffered many hardships:
a stormy passage, a Spanish attack, half rations, sea sickness,
cold damp weather above decks, and hot foul air below decks. Ye
are now anchored at an uncertain place, off the coast of North
America, which your goodly captain believes to be somewhere south
of Hudson's River. The sea is rough, your food is scarce, and
the Spanish and Dutch are close. You must settle here. A landing
party has returned with a map. You, as one of the corporate officers,
must decide where your trade post will be located.
The river is deep, even though it appears to be the season of low water. Within five months you expect the company to send more supplies in deep-water ships. The landing party reported seeing armed savages, who fled when approached. They feel that the trade post must be located so that it can be defended from a Spanish or English attack from both land and sea. You have: 15 men, 15 muskets (range of 50 yards), 200 bullets and powder charges, 3 cannon (range of 500 yards), 30 shot and powder charges, 10 days of food, 1 day of water, 1 ten person boat, enough equipment and material to build a 100 yard wall, 5 cabins, and 5 smaller buildings. For trade: 10 mirrors, 500 glass beads, 10 barrels of rum, 20 hand axes, 50 needles, 10 scissors, 20 knives, and 10 pots.
Your goodly captain hath given thee one week to submit a drawing of your post along with a short report describing what you have included in your post. The drawing should be done in colored pencil. Your report, although short (at least 2 paragraphs), should contain the basic description of your post, including approximate distances from major landmarks such as the river, woods, fields, etc.
You should keep several important factors in mind while designing your post:
1. Look at the map that shows the chosen location for your post. Take into account distances to the forest, fresh water, direction of the ocean, the Indians, etc. (Use the key in the lower right hand corner. 500 yards is approximately 1/3 of a mile)
2. Do you want to build anything around the post, like a wall or fence? What kind of materials will you use? Why?
3. How will the houses inside the post be arranged? Why?
4. Where will the fields be?
5. How will you set up the weapons to best defend the post?
This activity (the drawing and the report) is worth 10 points.